But not all ecological records are published or easily accessible for future users. The catalog record and digital images are made available online. Washington, DC 20036phone 202-833-8773email: esajournals@esa.org. '^��xyn�`ktft 'Ɲ���h�M 4&�;��U�����mڵsC˳0&�u:��b�� �!u+�"t��x��#׿�~8ޭ%�`A�[�����8��>��L+K o��L�y�f��pf���J��j�”HZz�ߐ`r������-�{q}�2i��������*&��.r٫�Ͳ%K]�R,\��Q˴��Z���kس�=����J+^��#�D?����ʕ�]���\�H��k� 2). The events leading up to both World Wars help us understand how a small event can set off a large series of changes. Sometimes what is predicted does not occur. Natural history collections are emerging resources for innovative education (Cook et al. Catalog records for these materials were also added to the Biodiversity Heritage Library. 2014), but there is more work to be done in getting specimens into the classroom, not just in introductory courses, but across the science curriculum. But Doel also pointed out that data that turn out to be useful for understanding environmental change might have originally been collected for very different reasons, often in response to the mounting tensions of the Cold War. They also include basic climate data, an overview of the geology of the region, maps of the route taken, photographs that document the environment, observations about social and economic conditions in the regions visited, and details about daily activities, expenses, travels, and encounters with people. © 2020 Ecological Society of America. 5 In one classic study, researchers evaluated the relative importance of the medical history, the physical exam, and diagnostic studies. Looking forward, Peet's advice was to think bigger by establishing and promoting standards for data format, content, and exchange, and by providing access to critical tools. Working off-campus? A linked Organized Poster Session on “Uses of and Access to Historical Data as Ecologists Confront a Rapidly Changing World” enabled more in‐depth conversations with those who had attended the session, as well as with people who had not heard the talks. Particular attention was paid to any warming trends that might give the Soviets an advantage, whether military or economic. In addition, specimens collected by the old Bureau of Biological Survey and Fish and Wildlife Services eventually come to the Smithsonian, which also acquires the associated field notebooks. Early ecologists realized that their studies were the start of a long‐term process of discovery, description, and analysis. Journals contain more than detailed information about flora and fauna, along with the date and location where they were collected. The spatial scale of observation also produces different results. Hurricane Hazel (1954), for instance, had a significant effect on tree diversity in severely damaged hardwood stands, with diversity increasing at first (due to absence of competition) and then later decreasing. 288 0 obj <> endobj 316 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<23ED130DD28F48DE4AAF6DA34BF16054>]/Index[288 74]/Info 287 0 R/Length 133/Prev 636088/Root 289 0 R/Size 362/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Projects being undertaken now are impressive in their creative scope and willingness to exploit all kinds of records, for instance the use of centuries‐old records of ice formation and river ice break‐up in Japan and Finland (Sharma et al. Peet discussed the importance of long‐term datasets, both for ecological theory and management practices. <> There are hundreds of field journals located within the Smithsonian's various departments in the Natural History Museum, National Zoo, Tropical Research Institute, Marine Station in Fort Pierce, Florida, and Environmental Research Center. We cannot anticipate what questions our data will allow future researchers to address. It is therefore possible to search for a location or collector and find all the material that the Smithsonian houses in its various museums, libraries, and archives, all in one place. and QUBES works to integrate museums into undergraduate education, because teaching students to use digitized natural history collections is one way to improve their quantitative skills. “The Importance of History and Historical Records as Ecologists Confront the Anthropocene” was the theme of the Organized Oral Session sponsored by the Historical Records Committee and organized by Julie Mulroy and Zoe Nyssa. She discussed various ways of getting this message out: through outreach at educational conferences and in journals, by training teachers and incorporating resources into textbooks and websites, and by collaborating with partners such as iDigBio, AIM‐UP!, and QUBES. Field notebooks cannot be machine‐read, so volunteers are invited to transcribe the information from an online Transcription Center (https://transcription.si.edu). The session at Ft. Lauderdale explored the question of how best to make historical work discoverable and usable to present and future generations, who have and will have very different questions in mind than those that motivated the original observations and collecting activities. 2 0 obj 4 0 obj Education, outreach to the public, and enabling research‐use of the data are important features of the project. On the importance of the obstetric history M Varner Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Linked article: This is a mini commentary on IM Aris et al., pp. That kind of decision can motivate organizational efforts. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. In the first paper of the session, Robert Peet concluded by looking to future needs in ecology. <> Ecologists like Livingston and Shreve were starting to build a descriptive historical record that they hoped future ecologists could use to construct a deeper understanding of ecological patterns and processes. Similarly, by considering what decisions the Park Service has to make, data can be collected to help that process. In the 1930s, Korstian established more than 50 permanent plots in the forest and measured every tree at 5‐year intervals. 2015), use of plant data to infer whether associated insect species might be endangered (Seltmann 2015), use of large datasets on insects to study areas of endemism of insects and their plant hosts in the Nearctic (Weirauch et al. {�#.�����Y��O��6[u��O��zeV����W5 �h�2L�է�.��\����->N~o�o����t|���_=?>��{ E��>���6���WL��6����e^;$x�}�����G�`NG|���Z�.��ݗ.�ڝv��� e��r���\=BQ�v�buy�5�iO���. In another example, an ice‐core drilling project conducted in Greenland during the height of the Cold War was meant to test the feasibility of installing ballistic missiles there (an idea that was abandoned), and not to study environmental changes. Jake Weltzin's discussion of the USA National Phenology Network (USA‐NPN), of which he is executive director, further developed several of the themes that Peet had raised. Culture is represented through the art, literature, costumes, customs, and traditions of a community. <>>> x|�^����! The Smithsonian also develops webinars on its own history to encourage volunteer participation. One example from the audience involved analyzing a vast amount of Icelandic data about the environment, including poetry, which often describes environmental conditions. 3). Finally, because data are place‐based and culturally relevant, students would also be working at the interface of science and society. x��=ks�Ƶ�=����dƄ���NFwd�i��۴v��7���$6�J���_�c�x�M-�}�={�g����i����o__�N�����~y�����ן~�^�����iw�|��;��y��O7/_����D&MV�2Wu����"��?|����uY��Y�����B�ך���Fr����W\�_7���p\׫g����Jk`��>��j�_v~�]�?��o���O��8qjt��g�釗/�@(���Zİ�����y�Ӻ?�Ek�V�q���0�'�,O�2����$���&n�'��/��_K�zzZo`aT�J������!�����n��O�"��e���̫�J�� �'��:7��AL�K�6fq]�_����K��B-���\�i]1YW�E�`Y�e\��2b�G��b�g@8BکvI��V�O{�LՅI�^]I� h‡���wS[�u�w�������t:��S�2k��$P����^���[��oD� '�[��,���!H�U��۩��n�s ��ˆn2�Q�h�) Photographs of the same plot in Duke Forest, though not from the same vantage point, in (left to right) 1935, 1950, 1983, and 2016. To make such records more widely available, the Smithsonian has developed a grant‐funded and volunteer program to digitize field journals and also have them transcribed so that the texts can be searched. The oldest field journal is the notebook of Constantine Rafinesque on the natural history of the Hudson Valley, circa 1815–1816 (Fig. The Ecological Society of America could, for instance, play a significant role, perhaps through a vision statement that would help to create resources to facilitate these kinds of activities. The project expanded to include information on insects, birds, reptiles, mammals, fish, and fossils from many locations. All rights reserved. Their book, although the product of a decade of work, was in their view “only a beginning.” They admitted that “real conclusions” would need to wait for other researchers who would push these studies forward (Livingston and Shreve, 1921, xiv). First, metadata is critical, so that someone can go back and do the same thing. If students could be taught to work directly with collections, she argued, this experience would help to develop research skills, as well as improve data‐literacy. He pointed to the need for stronger mandates for archiving data and workflows. Under the ADBC program, natural history collections form Thematic Collections Networks (TCNs) to digitize information addressing a particular research theme. Korstian was mainly interested in silviculture, but much later, Peet and his long‐time colleague Norm Christiansen were able to use this long‐term dataset to build models of ecological succession (Fig. Deborah Paul discussed the work of iDigBio (Integrated Digitized Biocollections, https://www.idigbio.org), a National Science Foundation (NSF)‐funded project that is now in year 6 of 10. iDigBio is part of the NSF's Advancing Digitization of Biodiversity Collections Program (ADBC) (Cooperative Agreement EF‐1115210) and is based at The University of Florida, The Florida Museum of Natural History, and Florida State University. After selecting a notebook to digitize, each page is first scanned to create high‐quality images. h�b```c``��������A���bl,� c����,~ �e�4�*�a����a��0��ň3(��d�e�`�:`�����Ѡe�*�P� | h��I!3��B���6π�)�VI��\����05�S,��tf�v�P���"�C�r�N���݉FΐF�. In Durham, North Carolina, for instance, the Forest History Society is dedicated to collecting, preserving, and disseminating materials relating to forest and conservation history. Nearly a century ago when Burton Livingston and Forrest Shreve introduced their monumental study, The Distribution of Vegetation in the United States, as Related to Climate Conditions, they knew to speak humbly.

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