[28], As strike-related violence mounted, Colorado governor Elias M. Ammons called in the Colorado National Guard on October 28. [19] In 1913 alone 110 men died in mine-related accidents. [63], Upton Sinclair's novel King Coal is loosely based on the origin and aftermath of the Ludlow Massacre. This list is not comprehensive, nor have all of these been evaluated. Agents shone searchlights on the tent villages at night and fired bullets into the tents at random, occasionally killing and maiming people. Gregory C. Pappas [67], In 1916, the United Mine Workers of America bought the site of the Ludlow tent colony. [7][6] Ludlow was the deadliest single incident in the southern Colorado Coal Strike, which lasted from September 1913 to December 1914. He was one of the few pastors in Trinidad permitted to search and provide Christian burials to the deceased victims of the Ludlow Massacre.[49]. The union decided to focus on the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company because of its harsh management tactics under the conservative and distant Rockefellers and other investors. The last three were in the Ludlow battle of April 20, 1914.". Search for "The Ludlow Massacre" on Amazon.com. [45], The United Mine Workers of America finally ran out of money, and called off the strike on December 10, 1914. To break or prevent strikes, the coal companies hired strike breakers, mainly from Mexico and southern and eastern Europe. Four members of this family were killed in the massacre, three by asphyxiation, fire, or both. [74], In 1996, the 1913–1914 Colorado Coalfield War Project began under the leadership of Randall H. McGuire of Binghamton University, Dean Saitta of University of Denver, and Philip Duke of Fort Lewis College, who later formed the Ludlow Collective. The men rushed to the assistance of their families; and as they did so, they were dropped as the whirring messengers of death sped surely to the mark ... into the cellars—the pits of hell under their blazing tents—crept the women and children, less fearful of the smoke and flames than of the nameless horror of the spitting bullets. The repaired monument was unveiled on June 5, 2005, with slightly altered faces on the statues.

Although the UMWA failed to win recognition from the company, the strike had a lasting effect both on conditions at the Colorado mines and on labor relations nationally. On April 20, 1914 members of the Colorado National Guard attacked a tent colony of striking coal miners and their families causing the deaths of 39 people including 2 women and 11 children. Large part of the Ludlow tent colony site destroyed by fire; UMWA organiser Louis Tikas assaulted and executed by gunshot; one bystander and five other males killed by gunshot; 2 women and 11 minor children killed by suffocation and/or fires set by militiamen. for the magazine Mother Earth. At first, the Guard's appearance calmed the situation, but the Guard leaders' sympathies lay with company management. Many resided in company towns, in which all land, real estate, and amenities were owned by the mine operator, and which were expressly designed to inculcate loyalty and squelch dissent. Discover what to watch this November including a Marvel docu-series, a '90s reboot, and a Star Wars holiday celebration. [18] Between 1884 and 1912 mining accidents claimed the lives of more than 1,700 in Colorado. [14] John D. Rockefeller purchased the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company in 1902, and nine years later he turned over his controlling interest in the company to his son, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., who managed the company from his offices at 26 Broadway in New York. Linderfelt, Sgt. She said that, in addition to men who were killed, a total of 55 women and children had died in the massacre. In addition to the miners and their family members, three national guardsmen and one other militiaman were killed in the day's fighting. Ruins of the Ludlow Colony in the aftermath of the massacre. [17] The tonnage system drove many poor and ambitious colliers to gamble with their lives by neglecting precautions and taking on risk, with consequences that were often fatal. [73] The group worked to develop programming in the state, such as lectures and exhibits, to commemorate the Ludlow workers' struggle and raise awareness of the massacre. From left to right: Captain R. J. Linderfelt, Lieut. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. KG and Ringy have been invited by the United Mine Workers of America to search for artifacts from the infamous Ludlow Massacre of 1914, when coal company guards fired on striking miners and their families. Historian Philip S. Foner has described company towns as "feudal domain[s], with the company acting as lord and master. [17], Miners were generally paid according to tonnage of coal produced, while so-called "dead work", such as shoring up unstable roofs, was often unpaid. [39] The report also blamed the looting that occurred afterward on "Troop 'A'", a unit composed largely of non-uniformed mine guards who had been integrated into the Guard. Rockefeller also brought in pioneer public relations expert Ivy Lee, who warned that the Rockefellers were losing public support and developed a strategy that Junior followed to repair it. [22] But owning the towns gave companies considerable control over all aspects of workers' lives, and they did not always use this power to augment public welfare.

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